1. LI Jing, “Study on the Prevention and Control Measures of Tuberculosis in New York Cityat the End of the 19th Century”.
In the second half of the 19th century, major cities in the United States had launched many infectious disease control activities. Among them, the New York City tuberculosis prevention and control campaign had the largest scale and far-reaching impact. New York City Health Bureau set up "health laboratory" creatively, test diagnosis of tuberculosis, created case report system, carried out health publicity and education, and standardized the health habits of residents. These measures not only turned the management of urban environment health to the prevention of infectious diseases, but also become the legal basis for the government to expand the health power by using the "bacterial theory". The prevention and control activities carried out by non-governmental organizations effectively make up for the absence and deficiency of administrative jurisdiction. New York City's tuberculosis campaign had become a model for other cities in the United States to fight infectious diseases.
2.WANG Guangkun, “Charity Medicine and Poverty Relief Medicine in Britain in the 19th Century”.
The epidemic spread in England in the 19th Century. Voluntary hospitals donated by charity and poverty relief medicine provided free services for the lower class. However, it was difficult for doctors and managers in voluntary hospitals to distinguish whether a patient was qualified to receive free diagnosis and treatment, leading to abuse of outpatient services and the debate of reform. The medical service under the system of poverty relief law effectively guaranteed the physical and mental health of the lower class, but the subsequent the New Poor Law focused on the administrative control of poverty relief in the hospital and gave doctors too much responsibility, resulting in frequent reforms. In 1911, the British government promulgated the National Insurance Law, which incorporated the results of the reform, and incorporated the two major medical service systems into the nationalized medical insurance system, which laid the foundation for the construction of the modern medical service system in Britain.
3. NIE Wen, “ Barber-surgeons in Europe Before the 19th Century”.
The barber-surgeon was a significant medical group that existed in European countries before the 19th century. Because of their humble background and non-standard operations, they were criticized by the contemporaries and modern scholars. They were the product of the early medieval European religious and medical environment. At the same time of serving the people, it kept growing. It had made contributions in setting up surgical standards, standardizing the medical market, practicing medical treatment and providing battlefield treatment. With the advent of the era of scientific medicine, barber-surgeons have gradually been replaced by modern doctors, but their historical contributions deserve full affirmation.
4. LI Huawen, “ Epidemic Diseases and Control in Guangdong and Guangxi during theRepublic of China”.
The epidemic diseases spread frequently in Guangdong and Guangxi during the Republic of China. It could be divided into three stages: mild, moderate and severe, with the most severe stage in 1940s, mainly concentrated in 7 regions, eastern Guangdong, Pearl River Delta region, western Guangdong, northern and northeast Hainan Island, northeast, southeast and central Guangxi. The epidemic in Guangdong is worse than in Guangxi. There were nearly 20 kinds of epidemic diseases, mainly cholera, plague, smallpox, malaria, meningitis, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid and so on. In the face of the epidemic crisis, the government had assumed the main responsibility for the prevention and control of epidemic diseases, and the measures were mainly mass vaccination. Civil charities had made a difference in giving medicine. General a often appealed to supernatural beings for help. The prevention and control of epidemic diseases in Guangdong and Guangzhou of the Republic of China was unsatisfactory. The immediate reason was the scarcity of medical resources. The fundamental reason was the social environment of natural and man-made disasters.
5. ZHANG Shanglian, “The Evolution of the Official Language in Medieval England”.
England began to witness trilingualism after the Norman Conquest: the Crown and government used French and Latin, the Church used Latin while the populace used English. However, the social linguistic context changed considerably after the Norman nobility lost their land in France in the early13th century. Henceforth, there were uneven fluctuations as to where English and French were used and how they functioned as an official language. French had been regarded as the most appropriate language for important parliamentary rolls in England and almost all the parliamentary petitions were written in French till the 1420s. Nevertheless, English was frequently adopted in parliamentary writings in the mid-15th century and rose to be the official language in late medieval England.
6. SHAO Zhengda, “ The Rise of Lawyer-Chancellors in England in the 16th Century and Its Legal Significance”.
The transformation from the medieval Ecclesiastical Chancellor to the Lawyer-Chancellor in the 16th century, accompanied by the reshaping of political status and power structure, laid the foundation of the system of modern Lord Chancellor. The rise of Lawyer-Chancellors was the result of the interaction of internal and external factors: the loss of the traditional knowledge and political advantage of the clergy, the political need of Tudor monarchs to strengthen the supremacy of royal power and the reform will to ease the conflict of law constituted the external causes. The expansion of the Judicial power of the Lord Chancellor and the prominence of his legal identity constituted the internal motivation. The legal significance of the rise of Lawyer-Chancellors lies in the promotion of the start of the modernization of equity. On the one hand, through judicial practice and reform, the Lord Chancellor promoted the transition from the uncertain "conscience" in the Middle Ages to the regularized modern equity; On the other hand, it promoted the establishment of harmonious partnership between equity and common law, and developed the "priority of Equity" principle in modern English law, and then established the duality of modern English law.
7. WANG Xiaobo, “An Analysis of Byzantine Sex Crime Legislation in the 8th Century”.
In the 8th century, the Byzantine Empire made quite harsh laws in the fight against sexual crimes. In theCode of Ecologanomon, sexual crimes were frequently punished by flogging, exile, or even extortion,sword or death penalty. The severe legislation of sexual crimes in Byzantine Empire was the result ofmany factors. There were a large number of sexual disorders and crimes in the Empire, which requiredsevere punishment to prevent a repetition of the Roman Empire's demise as a result of promiscuityand to maintain the long-term stability of the Empire. At the same time, the harshness of ByzantineEmpire's sexual crime legislation was not only deeply influenced by Christian morality, but alsoincorporated the concept of severe punishment of Islamic law.
8. YANG Jie and ZHAO Huibing, “The 1948 Donora Smog and the Beginnings of the Modern Politics of the Environment in the United States”.
The 1948 Donora smog was the first acute fatal air pollution event in the United States. Donora is anindustrial town in Pennsylvania. In October 1948, the town had a severe smog disaster that sickenednearly half of its 14,000 residents and killed dozens, which caused unfavorable influence. After theevent, all levels of society searched for the causes of Donora smoke. The United States Public HealthService is also involved in the disaster investigation into the smog incident. These initiatives have notonly sparked heated public debate about the health and environmental impacts of industrial pollution,but also promoted the development of a series of environmental policies by the federal governmentand great environmental movement by the people.
9. BAI Lizan, “On the Great Locust Plague in North America in the Late 19th Century”.
Locust plague was a long-standing problem in the history of agriculture. The only complete defeat oflocust was in the late 19`" century: Large-scale locust infestations caused by Rocky Mountain Locusts(Melanoplus spretus) swept across the North American continent, seriously affecting the productionand life of pioneers in the western United States, causing huge losses in agriculture and displacementof people. However, only 30 years later, at the beginning of the 20th century, the species of RockyMountain Locust went extinct and disappeared completely. The occurrence of locust plagues wasnot only related to the migratory habits of locusts, but also closely related to the human agriculturalactivities that change the natural environment. However, the extinction of the species of RockyMountain Locust was directly related to human's reclamation.
10. FANG Dong and LI Lian, “The Relief of the Great Famine after the Frost Disaster in Yunnan in 1925”.
In 1925, a great famine was caused by the frost disaster in the east of Yunnan province, and the people's livelihood was extremely destitute. At the same time, in the east of Yunnan province, the abnormal low temperature of the spring and summer lasted for three years, which seriously damaged the production of grain crops in spring and autumn. When the frost disaster broke out, the farmers had no food to live, and the famine spread rapidly. At that time, the social environment of Yunnan province was extremely fragile, the local storage system had collapsed. The government of Tang Jiyao was in financial difficulties, and Yunnan province did not have the ability of effective famine relief. Although the government of Yunnan Province had asked for help from the government of Beiyang, the later did not pay attention to it. In the absence of a national disaster relief forces, the relief effect of the local governments and civil forces is not obvious.
11.ZHU Dongbei, “1930's Shanghai Labor Literacy Education Movement”.
In 1930's, labor education in Shanghai was originally a public welfare activity outside the national politics. After the start of training, the new life movement had been deepening, and mastering theright of labor education became the top priority. The education mode of official supervision andmanagement came into being. The Literacy Education Committee set up by the Shanghai municipalauthorities was expected to ensure the effective promotion of literacy education through the linkagehierarchical divisions, as well as the sophisticated propaganda and investigation, and even the modernpolice force. However, in the operation space with the purpose of citizen training, the cooperationbetween business groups and the government also faced multiple benefits coordination, and laborliteracy education eventually became an inefficient compulsory movement.