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Contents and Summaries No.3 Augest, 2019
2021-02-06 03:36  

1.WANG Jiafeng, “The “Great Prosperity” and the “Great Depression” of Western Countries at the Late 19th Century”.

In the last several decades of the 19th century, the developing pattern of “great prosperity” coexisting with “great depression” appeared in western developed countries, which deeply influenced their society and thinking, and became one of the important forces to push the western countries to the World War I. The formation of such a way of development was the result of the scientific and technological development cycle, the economic development cycle combined with the period of large quantity of capital output of the “systemic cycle of accumulation”. In European history, the capital export period of the latter cycle always meant the transfer of the world economic center would begin and the threat of large-scale wars might approach. But today, we could see the relation of the above-mentioned way of development and wars from a new perspective. The appearance of the big boom, the great depression, or the massive export of capital and the transfer of the world’s economic center are inevitable. If the leading countries in the world can set up a relatively efficient international coordinating body and they are willing to work together to reduce the damages of the great depression, then there may be possible to avoid large-scale wars.

2.ZHENG Yang, “On the Jewish Policy of Flavian Dynasty”.

As for the Jewish policy of Flavian Dynasty, modern scholars always perplex by the contradiction between suppression and toleration on Judaism. In fact, such contradiction of the policy is a result of misreading of the polytheistic empire to the monotheistic religion. From the perspective of Roman official religious tradition, the true aim of the series of initiatives against Judaism after the First Jewish Revolt was to destroy the Jewish Religion itself. Although the Jewish policy of Flavian Dynasty failed to destroy Judaism and to prevent further Jewish revolts, the implementation of the policy gave impetus to the interaction between the Roman and Jewish Civilization, and had profound impacts on the future Jewish policy of Roman Empire.

3.SUN Jijing, “On the Autonomy of the British Livery Company in the Transitional Period”.

Influenced by various factors in the process of social transformation, the British Livery Companies had become a legal corporate body with the help of the Royal Charter, thus acquiring a number of autonomy rights including the right of trade admission, the right of trade search, the right of standards make, the right of financial management and the right of judicial jurisdiction. The granting of these autonomies was a common choice between the guild system and the national government, and the mutual needs between these rights were ensured by the mutual strength and the consistency of internal interests. Although the British companies had a much larger scope and degree of autonomy, they were not absolutely autonomous. With the enhancement of national strength and the consolidation of power, they were gradually incorporated into the national management system and became an extension of government functions. The companies had fully played the role in the “bridge” of the intermediate organization, which not only ensured the steady development of urban economy and the effective realization of citizens' interests, but also contributed to the macro-control of the country and created a good external environment for the social transformation of Britain.

4.SHI Jiaxi, “A Perspective on the Reform Process of Pakistan’s FATA”.

As a strategic buffer zone established during the British India period, FATA (federally administered tribal areas) had an important influence on the political situation in Pakistan. The region had maintained a state of semi-independence for a long time after the founding of Pakistan, and its special social environment had provided living space for the Taliban and other extremist forces. Therefore, the dual demands on FATA to rebuild the state authority and to oppose extremism, put reform on the agenda in the late 1990s. The reform, mainly in the political field, had gone through three basic stages. Universal suffrage was granted to the tribesmen in 1996. Under President Zardari, the Party Law was introduced and the governing system was amended. The 31st amendment to the constitution was passed in May 2018 to incorporate the FATA into neighboring Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. The reform of FATA has not ended yet, and its political achievements still need to be consolidated by supporting social-economy policy. The Pakistani government and society will also have to deal more effectively with resistance from tribal patriarchs.

5.SUN Xingjie, “The Crimean War, the Eastern Question and the Restructuring of the Vienna System”.

The Crimean War was a conflict between the British-led alliance and Russia in the heart of the European continent, which resulted in the “internalization” of the Eastern Question and broke the peace of the Vienna System. Eventually the Eastern Question became a turning point in the century of peace”. The Crimean War implied the end of the tacit cooperation between the two flanked countries of Europe, while the Vienna system shifted from the “Metternich Era” to the Bismarck Era”. The war between the two countries has crushed the geopolitical equilibrium of Eastern Europe, thus triggered a chain reaction of the “Italian Question” and the “German Question”. The key that maintaining European peace for a century has transferred from the European balance of power to overseas expansion, bringing the world into “the Age of Empires”. The Crimean War was the first European great war triggered by the “Eastern Question”, by which the Ottoman Empire was officially brought into the European international system. The booming of nationalism and the deterioration of relations between Russia and Austria made the Balkans becoming the “black hole” of the European system as well as a “gunpowder barrel” of the European wars. The Crimean War virtually ended the coordination mechanism of the European great powers established by the Vienna Conference, leading to the restructuring of Vienna system.

6.LIU Wei, “An Interpretation of Liu Wencai’s Phenomenon with the Theory of Bandits”.

In Liu Wencai’s political career, he had the behavior of both “draining the pond to catch the fish” and bringing benefit to the hometown. From the perspective of “Bandit Theory”, his inconsistent behavior was in line with the basic characteristics of the “mobile bandits” and “resident bandits”. During the period of the Republic of China, many warlords realized the transformation from “mobile bandits” to “resident bandits”, which also became a prerequisite for the emergence of various “modernization achievements” at that time. However, none of them have been able to further transition to democracy. In this sense, the achievements of modernization in the period of the Republic of China should not be overestimated.

7.TIAN Tao, “Investigation on Female Suicide in Tianjin County from 1902 to 1911”.

The reports of Ta-Kung-Pao on female suicide in Tianjin County in the late Qing Dynasty showed the seriousness of the problem in traditional society. Family conflicts, poverty and dissatisfaction in daily life were the main causes of female suicide which revealed the difficulties of the survival conditions of women in the lower classes. Although the newspapers such as Ta-Kung-Pao, some upper-class people and charitable organizations concerned about female suicides and expressed their views from the standpoint of modern ethics, the indifference of the whole society to the problem still reflected the dominant position of traditional female concept in the late Qing Dynasty.

8.ZHENG Kangqi, “Research on Army Provisions in Shaanxi KMT-ruled Area in the Period of Anti-Japanese War”.

During the Anti-Japanese War, army provisions were the important logistical material. As a big province in rear of the war, Shaanxi was of great importance. The preparation, transportation and management methods and policies of its army provisions continued to mature during the war. Under the unified management of the grain administration organization of the national government, through various means of transportation and adjustment, Shaanxi Province gradually formed a unique military transportation system in the late period of the anti-Japanese War. Meanwhile, by means of publicizing the collection of army provisions and other means, the Shaanxi provincial government basically completed the task of army provisions required by the national government, and provided an important material guarantee for the victory of the anti-Japanese War.

9.WU Yang and BU Fengxian, “The Measures of Smog Governance in London and Manchester since the 19th Century”.

The typical urban smog problems had appeared in the industrial development of Britain since the 19th century. London and Manchester became heavy disaster areas in England. Coal smoke pollution was the typical urban pollutant in Britain, Alkali, steel, ceramics and electricity industries were major sources of air pollution in the cities of England. Urban smog caused serious harm to human health, animal survival, plant growth and the building appearance. The successful governance experience of the British government shows that the intensity of government supervision, the cognition and attitude of the people, and the level of science and technology are the three elements of urban smog governance in Britain.

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