1.WANG Yaping, “From the German Order to the Duchy of Prussia”.
The German Order was founded in Jerusalem during the third crusade. After the Crusades, the order returned to Europe, and had a foothold in Prussia. They worked for the eastward movement of Germany, and gradually occupied the entire Prussia region. The German Order was an organization of both religious and military. The Prussian region became an inherent part of the order, and rising to the status of the order state with the support of the German emperor and Pope. The order built the “state” by military power, and also relied on military power to expand abroad. Since then, the order has gained considerable territory in the battle with Poland and Lithuania. At the same time, Germen Order combined with the alliance of Hanseatic cities to monopolize the trade in the North Sea region, boosting its economic power. During the reformation, the order was secularized and became to duchy at the suggestion of Martin Luther.
2.XING Laishun, “World Policy and Its Implementing Consequences in the Period of William II in Germany”.
After William II’s succession, the German Empire abandoned the continental policy of Bismarck and turned to the world policy. The change of policy originated from the demand of industrialization for external raw materials and international market, and also catered to the trend of ultra-nationalism at home. In order to seek world hegemony, Germany continued to expand its navy and compete for colonies all over the world. In diplomacy, the distance between Germany and Russia led to the alliance between Russia and France. Germany tried to approach Britain, but the contradiction of competing for Africa between the two countries could not be resolved. A naval arms race with Britain eventually pushed Britain to the side of France and Russia. Germany’s world policy did not gain greater economic benefits, except for creating the image of a world power, and making itself became the common opponent of Britain, France and Russia.
3.Henri Pirenne, “The Method of Historical Comparison”.
4.LYU Xiaoyan, “A Summary of Studies on the Status of the Elderly in Western Academia”.
Since the mid-20th century, the historical change of the status of the elderly has become an important issue among western sociologists and historians. Views like the golden age, modernization theory and structural dependence have been put forward one after the other, emphasizing the negative impacts of economic and social change, such as industrialization and the construction of welfare system, on the status of the elderly. As for the aging and pension problem, related researches tend to be “now-centered”, paying more attention to the dependence of the elderly. Since 1980s, many scholars empirically opposed the idealized description of the golden age and the exaggeration of the plight of the elderly in modern society. They emphasized that there were multiple differences of old age experience in time, class, gender, economy and culture, trying to present an history of the elderly that had both commonality and differences among different social groups in different time and space.
5.SUN Haipeng, “On the Rise and Historical Status of Early Modern English Bankers”.
Early modern period is one important stage in the history of English banking. During this period, with the growth of national wealth, the lift of the ban on usury, the disappearance of charitable organizations’ relief functions and the retreat of alien bankers, the domestic banking experienced sufficient developments. A group of banking pioneers, such as capital brokers, scriveners and goldsmiths appeared. Among them, the intermediary function capital brokers exerted was similar to that of a real bank; while scriveners’ activities contributed to the rise of deposit banking, goldsmiths were playing the role of bill-issuers. Despite the limitations of early bankers’ business, their credit activities promoted the innovation of British financial instruments and the expansion of deposit, loans and currency issuance, which laid the foundation to the establishment of public banks and financial transition in England.
6.LI Xinchang, “The Imperial Idea in Byzantine Chariot Race”.
Chariot Race was important circus program during Roman-Byzantine period. In Byzantine period, Chariot Race had new changes and developments, not only several excellent Chariot drivers appeared, but also mature circus factions were systematic. At that time, hippodrome became important place where citizens watched Chariot Race, and also where citizens expressed political complaints towards emperors and discussed policies. Having inherited from Roman legacy, Byzantine Chariot Race acquired the new public significance and value.
7.DAI Sheng, “Merchant, Overlord and Japanese Pirate: Analysis on the Image of WANG Zhi
from Different Perspectives”.
The evaluation of WANG Zhi changes a lot from different perspectives in historical domain. From the perspective of global history, he was a great merchant engaged in transnational trade. From the perspective of East Asian history, he was the overlord of a maritime force which could hold sway over a region. Looking at WANG Zhi from the perspective of Chinese history, he was treated as a Japanese pirate. Though the role definition of WANG Zhi varied, the historical facts remain. Toanalyze different roles of WANG Zhi is helpful to understand the plight of Chinese maritime merchants in the era of great navigation.
8.XIANG Haonan, “Warlord Politics and Opium Economy in Suiyuan Area from 1912 to 1937”.
During the period of the Republic of China, Suiyuan has always been a region with a very serious opium flood. The reason of the opium problem was determined by the nature of the warlord politics at that time. In order to pay for rising military expenditures, to fill financial loopholes, and to stabilize the rule, the warlords charged the fines of opium to extract a large amount of wealth from opium. Opium incomes have even become the pillar of the finance and the economic foundation of the warlord politics. The dependence of the warlords on opium made the prohibition of planting impossible, while the peasants also made profits from opium planting. The opium economic network in Suiyuan area has prevented the entire society from getting rid of the shadow of opium. The warlord politics has nourished the opium economy.
9.XU Yihuan, “The Foundation of the Bank of England from a Perspective of Economic and Social History”.
A currency crisis took place in the 17th century England. The shortage of coins gave birth to various ideas for the establishing banks. The Bank of England founded in 1694 issued bank notes by raising public debts. It just took 12 days to completely raised 1.2 million pounds. Although the support of parliament and the political institution that protected property rights could account for its success, fundamental reasons were rooted in ideas of investment shared by the upper class and the common people. The shareholders’ distribution clearly illustrated that wealth accumulation had reached people from all walks of life in England. It was the productive and assignable character of bank notes issued by the Bank of England that motivated economy to take off.
10.SHI Xinling, “The Scholar-statesmen in the Government of mid-Tudor England”.
In the 16th century, series of major changes took place in the economic, political and social fields of England, and a large number of intellectual elites obtained public positions, gradually dominated the senior level of central government, affecting and participating in the formulation of national policies. With the professional ability, the scholar-statesmen group formed in the mid-Tudor England promoted the resolution of current political issues, realized the reform of government organization represented by the reform of privy council. The scholar-statesmen gradually became the major member of the central government in the mid-Tudor period, leading the state management and promoting the institutionalization and specialization of the England government during the early modern times.