1.CHEN Lijun, “Games between Customary Rights and Private Property Rights—— The Gleaning Struggle in Early Modern England”.
The right of gleaning is a legacy of the medieval tradition, which also gets its basis in the Bible. In the early modern times, the gleaning is still widespread, and is also one of the food bulwarks to satisfy the poor peasants’ hunger. With the development of capitalist private property rights, it was decided illegal by the Court of Common Pleas, which has caused widespread concern in society. Although the right of gleaning was judged illegal, the poor gleaners have received a general sympathy of the society. For more than half a century, the poor still fulﬁlled this ancient customary right, but they have not been severely punished. Finally, with the clariﬁcation of land property rights, the modernization of agriculture and the strengthening of the relief of the poor, the contradiction was gradually resolved.
2.LIU Jingru, “The Factory School and the Education of Child labor in Britain in the 19th Century”.
At the end of the 18th century, England entered the fast track of development after the baptism of the Industrial Revolution. However, the employment of child labor was enlarging and the situation of child labor was deteriorating, these were particularly typical in textile factories. Heavy labor in factories not only consumed the health of the children, but also destroyed their intelligence. In the
middle of the 19th century, the government enacted a series of “Factories Act” to guarantee the most elementary education for the child labor. Then, the rudiment of British primary education has been derived from the clauses of factory law.
3.ZHANG Jiayao, “Legislations against Child Labor and its Effects in Britain in the 19th century”.
Child labor is a historical phenomenon that followed the British industrial Revolution. In the 18th century, the living condition of child labor in Britain was no less than black slaves, and their physical and mental health and other aspects could not be guaranteed. With the progress and development of British society, the upper and middle class realized that children were the future of the country and the nation, and humanists also believed that all levels of society should pay attention and compassion to the miserable sufferings of child labor in factories. Under the strong social pressure, the British government intervened in the issue of child labor in factories from the perspective of legislation. Since the 19th century, the living conditions of children in factories have been improved by legislation to improve the working environment, shorten the working hours and strictly restrict the minimum age of factory labor.
4.CHENG Minsheng, “On the Cultural Cultivation of the Royal Clan in Song Dynasty”.
Members of the royal clan possessed the most gracious life and superior education condition. Meanwhile, the emperor of the Song dynasty attached great importance to the imperial clan education and furthermore made it systemize. Due to the investment on education, the royal clan in Song dynasty generally had good cultural quality. By the late Song dynasty, there had been around 4000 literate males of the royal clan. They were keen on reading books and writing poems, some of their cultural achievements were praised by the most famous writers and artists of that time. The royal clan in Song dynasty was a shining cultural force. The cultural atmosphere of Song royal clan eliminated the violent ethos and reduced the inﬁghting among the royal family unconsciously. Zhao-Song dynasty shows us the elegant image which differs from royal clan of other dynasties.
5.ZANG Jingjing, “Measures and Ritual Responses to Disasters and Abnormal Phenomena in Song Dynasty”.
After the appearance of natural disasters and abnormal astronomical phenomena, the rulers of the Song Dynasty was used to change the titles of their reign, change their clothes, avoid entering the
main hall, reduce daily meals, get rid of the honorary names, stop ceremonies and cancel recreational activities to show their awe of the providence. In order to eliminate the disaster, they also expressed their repentance through prayer and sacrifice, hoping to obtain the forgiveness and to turn the disaster into blessing through the ritual. The ritual response to solar eclipse in Song Dynasty was different from the previous dynasties. The rulers of Song Dynasty prevented the officials from celebrating when the eclipse was out of sight, which highlighted the rational characteristics of blaming themselves. The solemnity of these ceremonies prompted the emperors of Song Dynasty to remain vigilant, helped them to understand themselves, to promote policy adjustment and the renewal of political situation.
6.WANG Hao, “The Academic Activities and Characteristics of the Jesuits in the Late Qing Dynasty and the Republican China”.
Like their predecessors of the 17th to 18th centuries, the Jesuits of 19th to 20th centuries continued to preach academically in China. However, the development of thoughts of rationalism in Europe had gradually marginalized religion in the 19th century. Thus, the Jesuits’ academic activities which aimed at preaching should also respond to the consideration of thoughts of rationalism of secular society. In order to get a better situation, the Jesuits cooperated actively with European scholars in colleges and followed their academic disciplines. Nevertheless, the conservatism of religion and the internal tension of rationality frustrated the Jesuits’ academic activities between faith and reason from time to time.
7.LIU Danqing, “The United Kingdom: the Pioneering Country in the Development of Rural Tourism”.
The British Industrial Revolution opened the era of modern mass tourism, and industrialization and urbanization fostered the reform of rural England after the mid-19th century. These laid the foundation for the development of rural tourism in UK. After the mid-20th century, the rural tourism of the country developed rapidly. It accounted for a large proportion of the tourism industry in the country, and also became one of the most important sectors in the UK’s rural economy. Cotswolds is an example of best-practice for tourism development in rural areas. Governmental planning and management, nongovernmental investments and initiatives, and industry self-regulation, these are the major factors contributing to rural tourism development in UK.
8.XIONG Fangfang, “Return to the Country: the Rural Tourism in Provence”.
The Provence in southeastern France has suffered a continuous outﬂow of rural population since the middle of nineteenth Century. After 1960s, the rich natural resources and cultural landscape provided a new opportunity for the “rural renaissance” of Provence. The coastal area, the Alps and the inland areas have developed their distinctive rural tourism, which has promoted the transformation of rural population and employment structure, but it has also negative impacts to which we should pay attention.
9.LIU Tao, “The Smokeless Industrialization of Zandvoort in the Netherlands and Its Enlightments”.
Unlike the rural urbanization which was promoted by industrialization in other parts of Europe during the Industrial Revolution, rural tourism has become a major impetus to Dutch urbanization. We can catch a glimpse of the relationship between tourism and rural urbanization in the Netherlands through the transformation of Zandvoort from a fishing village to a tourist town. In the second half of the 19th century, the construction of railway strengthened links between Zandvoort and other parts of the Netherlands, and enabled people to exploit tourist resources in this region. Then, the economic structure of the fishing village has been changed by the development of coastal tourism and leisure industry. In the first half of the 20th century, decision-makers upheld the policy of diversification and popularization of the service, which not only facilitated a further development of the tourism industry in Zandvoort but also kept its tourism industry in an evergreen state. The model pf rural urbanization represented by in the Netherlands during the industrial revolution still has a strong practical significance to those regions plan to develop their tourism industry.
10.HUANG Xiaoyu and SHEN Chencheng, “Cooperation between Germany and Austria in the Development of Tourism in the Alps”.
There are quite abundant tourism resources in the Alps. The economy of the Alps was dominated by agriculture in history. From the second half of the 19th Century, European began to explore and travel on a conscious, organized and large-scale basis in the Alps. In the second half of the 20th century, the Alps became a hot spot of mass tourism in Europe. Germany and Austria cooperated to develop alpine tourism projects successfully. However, the development of tourism also brought some negative problems. Under the guidance of the EU, Germany and Austria not only retained features of alpine tourism, but also balanced the development of small towns in the Alps, which promoted the economy developing sustainably.
11.XU Songyan and ZHAO Qingqing, “From the ‘Maritime Alliance’ to the ‘Maritime Empire’——A Study on the External Expansion of Athens and the International Relations with Eastern Mediterranean in the 5th Century B. C.”
Athenian League, which was composed of Athens and Delian League, gradually evolved into Athenian Empire after the Persian Wars (500-479 B. C.). Based on military force, Athenians strengthened the government of the masses of the numerous vassal states from the aspects of politics, economy, judicature and so on, even to the extent that almost deprive of the sovereignty of these states. The Athenian Empire was not the alliance of sovereign states, but the state of the Athenians. With the passage of time, the contradiction between Athenian polis system and Athenian national scale was increasingly prominent, and the conflict between Athens and other poleis such as Sparta was constantly serious, which eventually led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War and the collapse of Athenian Empire. The formation and collapse of the Athenian Empire had an important impact on the international relations with Eastern Mediterranean in the 5th century B. C.
12.С. Г. Vazhenin and В. В. Sukhikh, “The Failure of Cooperation between Russian Tsarist Government and Businessmen from the 19th Century to the Beginning of the 20th Century”.
From the 19th century to the beginning of 20th century, Russian government has followed the step of west European countries and formed partnership relationship with businessmen in the construction of navigation canals. The multiple cooperation in the construction project of Ural canal resulted in failure. The ultimate reason lay in the crisis of confidence between the two parties. Incomplete economic industrial policies, corruption of bureaucrats, contemptuous attitude towards businessmen and concerns towards merchants’ trade monopoly all had negative effect in cooperation. Businessmen insisted to distrust the government after experiencing the dishonesty of government for several times. Besides, the internal interest discrepancy and deceits among businessmen also increased the difficulties for cooperation, which destined the rupture of partnership relationship between country and individuals and the failure of canal project.
13. Donald Worster, “Whose Nature? Science versus Tradition in Building the Ecological Civilization”