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Content and Summaries No.3 Augest,2018
2021-02-06 11:46  

1.MA Keyao, “Recognition of the Transition from Slavery to Feudalism in Western Europe”.

In the late Western Rome Empire, agriculture, industry and Commerce both showed a trend of declining and descending. The city had also seen a decline, gradually changed from the autonomy to the government management. Before entering the Empire, the barbarians were in the era of tribal confederation, and they gradually integrated into Roman society after entering the Empire. From the melees between A. D. 378 to 395, it can be seen that the military strength of the Rome Empire had been held in the hands of the barbarians. Because of the declining politics and economy of the Empire, it was no longer possible for Eastern Rome to control the whole East and West, and the division was inevitable. Lots of barbarian’s customs had been formed by the late Rome army, but the cultural and psychological gap between the barbarians and the Romans always existed. In spite of the tendency of Romanization, the barbarians finally destroyed Western Rome. The struggle of the Ostrogoths against Justinian belonged to the conflict between the Romans and the East Goths, so it was not in the nature of restoration or counter-restoration. Therefore, it is hard to say that the destruction of the Western Roman Empire had the typical significance of the transition from slavery to feudalism.

2.HA Quan’an, “The Political Ideas of Religious Scholars and Secular Intellectuals in Iran since the Islamic Revolution”.

Since the Islamic revolution in Iran, political ideas had been diversified from the official level to the civil level. After entering into the post-Khomeini era, the diversity of political ideas was particularly prominent, thus it formed increasingly strong political voices. The differences in political ideas which transcended the boundaries of religion and secularity, run through the political process of the Islamic Republic, had a profound political influence on Iran society, and also reflected the political ecology of democratization.

3.GENG Zhi, “Anglo-American Control of the Global Nuclear Materials during WWII”.

Uranium ore was the main nuclear material and the basis of the Manhattan Project carried out by Anglo-American government during WWII. Keeping this global nuclear material under control, not only related to the Anglo-American’s success or failure of the Manhattan Project, but also could prevent the Nazi Germany from firstly developing an atomic bomb. Further, it would be the base for the British independent nuclear research and development and for the American superiority in military atomic application being strengthened after the war. For these purposes, in addition to the resources of Anglo-American itself and the Commonwealth countries, the two governments jointly spared no pains to control Uranium ore of Belgian Congo, which was largest source of this material at that time; moreover, similar operations were successfully carried out in Portugal, Dutch East India and Brazil, and to a certain extent, they had also forced Sweden to commit a ban on the export of Uranium ore. Thus Anglo-American generally realized the global control of nuclear materials during the war.

4.ZHANG Wei, “The Westminster Buildings and the Coronation in Medieval England”.

Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall have been important venues for the coronation of the king a religious and political sanctity. Events such as the coronation banquets which were held in Westminster Hall gave the ceremony more secular meaning. During the period of Reformation in England, a lot of shrines, statutes of saints in the Abbey are abused in order to adapt to the transition of the religious doctrines and rituals to the Church of England. The buildings of Westminster as ritual space had undergone various changes in medieval England. These changes not only reflected the continuity of the country’s political life, but also clearly reflected in a certain historical period the internal and external policies at the national level and the transition of social thoughts. In this sense, the change of ritual space was an indispensable window to show the evolution of political culture in medieval England.

5.YE Lele, “Doctors in the Age of State Medicine and the Establishment of Compulsory Smallpox Vaccination in England”.

Vaccination was an important task of the British health administration, but there were many problems in the management and the effect of vaccination was not good. In the second half of the 19th century, a group of doctors with Dr. John Simon as the core entered to the British health department and engaged in the prevention and treatment of diseases. They put forward a set of management mechanism to improve vaccination, and on the basis of this, carried out the compulsory vaccination system. In response to the opposition in society, doctors in health department defended and propagated the compulsory vaccination system from the perspective of medical science, which played an important role in the formation of compulsory vaccination system and embodied the combination of political power and medicine.

6.WANG Yaping, “The Influence of Christian Churches on Secular Politics in the Middle Ages”.

7.YAN Aimin, “A New Interpretation on ‘Ordering Males to Marry at the Age of Thirty and Females at the Age of Twenty’ of Zhou Li”.

The statement of Mei Shi (an organ which was in charge of marriage affairs) “ordered males to marry at the age of thirty and females at the age of twenty” recorded in Zhou Li, had many ambiguities since ancient times. However, from the history of marriage evolution, this ancient tradition of late marriage was on the base of the evolutionary and development of matrimony. At the beginning of the establishment of monogamy, there was a large number of late marriage or non-marriage in the society. There also had the legend of Shun and Yu married at the age of thirty. Records of the age of Marriage in historical documents, such as Zhou Li, had no intention to advocate late marriage or set a limit on the age of marriage, but measures of the government to regulate and promote marriage etiquette when the primitive marriage customs that still existed in the folk. Those measures had the significance of overcoming primitive marriage customs and strengthening the monogamous institution. The same tendency could be seen when the early marriage policy was later implemented.

8.HUANG Qinglin, “The Success and Failure of Commercialization on Guangdong Section of the Canton-Hankow Railway in the Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republic of China”.

The Qing government originally signed a contract with Hexing Company of the United States to build the Canton-Hankow Railway. But due to the latter’s default, the Qing government redeemed the right of road and announced to construct it by fund-raising in the way of tax collection. Guangdong gentries and merchants objected because they intended to invest in the railway, and the public opinion created by newspapers and other media condemned the government one after another. The Qing government tried to suppress them with power, but the folk power represented by the gentries and merchants fought against the power of the government. At last, the Qing government compromised and agreed to commercialize the Guangdong section of the railway. However, because of the misconceptions of people, commercial railway companies had never standardized the enterprise system. In the early republic of China, the political situation in Guangdong was in turmoil, and the revolutionary government took over the railway which based on the needs of the northern expedition. The commercialization of Guangdong section of the Canton-Hankow railway illustrated the social and economic transformation in modern China.

9.ZHAO Wenhong, “The Inheritance of Ancient Chinese Core Values from the Descendants’ Pursuit of Yue Fei”.

10.FU Xinqiu, “Review: Six Thousand Years of Human Beings, by Liu Jinghua”.

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