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Contents and Summaries No.3 August, 2022
October 24, 2022  

A Comparison of the Development of Sea Power in the Ancient World (Part II)

MA Keyao

       Influenced by the geographical environment, economic demand, nautical equipment and technology, some ancient countries developed sea power earlier, some became maritime empires, and some developed sea power slowly. The geographical environment of Ancient Greek Poleis made them develop sea power and expand their living space. Even Sparta, which was developed in agriculture, had become a maritime power in the fight for hegemony. The Persian Empire had the strength to build warships, but it didn’t have its own naval talents, so it didn’t have enough strength to occupy Greece. Rome defeated Carthage with its own navy and became a maritime power in its aggression and expansion. Ancient Chinese dynasties took agriculture as the foundation, and its geographical environment always led to the invasion of nomads in the northwest. Therefore, the main energy of unifying the country was used to resist the strong enemies in the northwest. All the operations at sea were aimed at conquering adjacent regions, not for the purpose of economic plunder. In Song Dynasty, there was a trend to develop sea power, and after Song Dynasty, there was an economic foundation to do so. However, the implementation of the ban on maritime trade in Ming and Qing Dynasties stagnated the momentum of ancient China’s development of sea power.


When did the Gap of Per Capita GDP Between China and The West Begin?

LI Guifang and XU Hao

GDP can reflect the size of a country’s economic volume, but it cannot directly reflect its wealth and strength. Therefore, the comparison of GDP can never replace the comparison of per capita GDP. In the 1960s and 1970s, the comparison of the per capita GDP between China and the West evolved from the gap theory before the Industrial Revolution to the similarity theory, which once became a popular orthodox view. After the 1980s, the comparison of per capita GDP between China and the West reached another climax, which not only reaffirmed the gap theory before the Industrial Revolution, but also traced the starting point from before the Industrial Revolution to the 14th century. After the Black Death, due to the lack of synchronous reform in other parts of Western Europe, the per capita GDP had a different evolution trend from that in northwest Europe. This differential evolution not only led to “the little divergence” within Europe, but also ultimately to “the great divergence” between Europe and Asia.


Urban Economy in the Zionist Movement The Development of Tel Aviv from 1919 to 1936

LIU Hongjie

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Zionists conceived the vision of developing modern Jewish cities, and Tel Aviv took the lead in implementing it. Mayor Dizengoff encouraged private investment and entrepreneurship to develop the city’s industrial and commercial economy. By the mid-1930s, Tel Aviv’s industrial and commercial system was gradually improved. Tel Aviv regularly held Levant International Fairs to show the achievement of the economic development of Yishuv. It represented a development path of urban Zionism. Critics had mixed opinions on it: the praisers believed that it was the epitome of the construction of national homeland; the critics accused it of the continuation of Jewish life in the diaspora. How to build a national homeland, urban Zionists upheld a pragmatic concept between tradition and innovation.

Tel Aviv: Atarim Plaza on JSTOR


The Theory of “Poverty Caused by Illness” and Public Health Management in Britain in the 19th century

WANG Guangkun

In the mid-19th century, with the acceleration of urbanization in Britain, the public health environment was deteriorating day by day. Through investigation, men of insight represented by Chadwick believed that the deterioration of the health environment would lead to epidemic diseases, which would not only endanger the health of individuals, but also may lead to the spread of poverty, moral collapse, ethical disorder and national strength decline. Therefore, it was suggested that the state must fully and thoroughly intervene in public health management, improve environmental health, ensure the physical and mental health of the people as well as social stability and prosperity, and take this as a necessary strategy for the central government to relieve poverty, so as to uphold social equity and justice. This theory of “poverty caused by illness” linked health, poverty relief with economic development and social justice, which profoundly affected the construction of the British public health management system, and laid a foundation for the subsequent construction and development of the welfare state.


In the Name of Civilization: The Origin of British Animal Protection Movement in the 19th Century

WANG Xiaohui

The rise of the animal protection movement in Britain in the 19th century was the result of a comprehensive action of many factors, but it had nothing to do with the nature of the British people. Before the rise of the animal protection movement, the situation of animals in Britain was so miserable that Britain was even called the “hell” of animals. Since the second half of the 18th century, with the spread of the concept of “civilization” in Britain and the construction of the Britain’s “civilized country” identity, the upper and middle classes of British society believed that the tragic situation of animals in Britain was inconsistent with their status as a civilized country, which was a disgrace to civilization and undermined the British people’s sense of moral superiority. Therefore, the gap between the cruel treatment of animals in the British society and its self-regarded as a civilized country became the “new impetus” for Britain to start animal protection legislation and promote the protection movement in the 19th century.


A Study on the Failure of Archbishop Laud in Controlling London Soot

GAO Maiai

Since the 17th century, the soot pollution in London had become more and more serious. William Laud who was the Archbishop of Canterbury severely punished the brewing workshops for emitting soot by judicial means, and strictly implemented the king’s order not to rent church houses. The purpose of him was to maintain the supremacy of kingship and pursue the restoration of British religious sanctity. Moreover, he also actively supported Charles I’s foreign wars, supported the king’s tax demands, actively participated in the maintenance of St. Paul’s Church. Although controlled soot, he ignored the lives of workshop owners and clergies. As a result, he became the target of public criticism. Due to the joint efforts of various forces, Laud was guillotined in 1640.

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury on JSTOR


Institute of European Civilazation